Road User Behavior

Applying Safety Treatments To Rail-Highway At-Grade Crossings

Cooper, Douglas L.
Ragland, David R.
2012

At-grade rail crossings provide different levels of warnings and/or barriers to alert drivers to the potential dangers presented by approaching trains. For some drivers, an activated warning system, rather than being a signal to stop, merely serves as a cue for the need to make a decision whether or not to cross. In California, for the ten-year period from 2001 to 2010, the result was 1,033 trainvehicle crashes resulting in 157 deaths and 458 injuries.

Modeling Bicycle Passing Maneuvers on Multilane Separated Bicycle Paths

Li, Zhibin
Wang, Wei
Liu, Pan
Bigham, John M.
Ragland, David R.
2012

Bicycle passing maneuvers represent interferences between bicycle travelers and are important operational attributes of bicycle traffic. The number of bicycle passing maneuvers has been used to evaluate the level of service (LOS) of off-street bicycle facilities. The primary objectives of this paper are to propose a method to model bicycle passing maneuvers on multilane bicycle paths with heavy bicycle traffic and explore the characteristics of those passes.

Variations in Teens' Perception of Risk Factors for Teen Motor Vehicle Collision Injuries

Chen, Katherine L.
Cooper, Jill F.
Grembek, Offer
Henk, Russell
Tisdale, Stacey M.
2014

Teen drivers, especially males, are known to be at greater risk of being involved in a motor vehicle collision than any other age group. While novice teen drivers’ primary risk factors are commonly known, less is known about what teens perceive as risk factors for peers getting hurt or killed in motor vehicle collisions.

Predictors of Nonstandard Helmet Use Among San Francisco Bay–Area Motorcyclists

Tsui, Casey K.
Rice, Thomas M.
Pande, Swati
2013
Objective: The use of helmets that do not comply with safety standards is common in California. The objective of this study was to describe the use of these nonstandard helmets among San Francisco Bay–area (SFBA) motorcyclists and to identify personal and motorcycle characteristics that are associated with the use of nonstandard helmets.
Methods: A survey of 860 SFBA motorcyclists was conducted. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios to compare probabilities of nonstandard helmet use.

Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report

Bu, Fanping
Greene-Roesel, Ryan
Diogenes, Mara Chagas
Ragland, David R.
2007

Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce and Dharmaraju, 2002; Noyce et al., 2006).

Integration of Light Rail Transit into City Streets

Korve, Hans W.
Farran, Jose I.
Mansel, Douglas M.
Levinson, Herbert S.
Chira-Chavala, T.
Ragland, David R.
1996

This report addresses the safety and operating experience of light rail transit (LRT) systems operating in shared (on-street or mall) rights-of-way at speeds that do not exceed 35 mph. It is based on agency interviews, field observations, and accident analyses of 10 LRT systems in the United States and Canada. These systems—in Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Calgary, Los Angeles, Portland, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Jose—provide a broad range of current LRT operating practices and problems.

Relative Vulnerability Matrix for Evaluating Multimodal Traffic Safety

Grembek, Offer
2015

The multimodal transportation network includes a mix of inherently different modes. In addition to differences in price, range, and comfort of travel, these modes differ in mass and velocity, which correspond to different orders of magnitude in the kinetic energy carried. This discrepancy in kinetic energy affects both the level of protection of each mode, and the level of damage it can inflict on users of other modes. Unfortunately, accounting for both sides of a crash is often overlooked.

Using Variable Speed Limits To Reduce Rear-End Collision Risks Near Recurrent Bottlenecks

Li, Zhibin
Liu, Pan
Bigham, John M.
Ragland, David R.
2013

Rear-end collisions would occur if vehicle speeds decrease abruptly when encountering kinematic waves (KWs) emanating from active bottlenecks. This study aims to develop a control strategy in variable speed limits (VSL) to reduce rear-end collision risks near recurrent bottlenecks. Using the crash prediction model developed for rear-end collisions related to risky KWs, the effectiveness of VSL control strategies were evaluated in the cell transmission model (CTM). Several strategies were tested in sequence to determine the best case for risk reduction.

Acceptance of drinking and driving and alcohol-involved driving crashes in California

MacLeod, Kara E.
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.
Ragland, David R.
Satariano, William A.
Kelley-Baker, Tara
Lacey, John H.
2015

Background: Alcohol-impaired driving accounts for substantial proportion of traffic-related fatalities in the U.S. Risk perceptions for drinking and driving have been associated with various measures of drinking and driving behavior. In an effort to understand how to intervene and to better understand how risk perceptions may be shaped, this study explored whether an objective environmental-level measure (proportion of alcohol-involved driving crashes in one’s residential city) were related to individual-level perceptions and behavior.

Associations between Road Network Structure and Pedestrian-Bicyclist Accidents

Zhang, Yuanyuan
Bigham, John M.
Li, Zhibin
Ragland, David R.
Chen, Xiaohong
2012

It is widely known that the road network layout can impact the non-motorized users’ traffic safety by changing the non-motorized traffic volume and road users’ behavior. Different road network patterns lead to different traffic safety levels for non-auto users and a single pattern can even have both the safe and unsafe features at the same time. By knowing what features can lead to safer traffic environment, existing road networks can be improved and new network patterns can be produced by combining all safe features from different patterns.