California Safe Speeds Toolkit: References


AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. “2018 Traffic Safety Culture Index.” Washington, D.C., June 2019.

AB 2363 Zero Traffic Fatalities Task Force. “CalSTA Report of Findings.” California State Transportation Agency, January 2020.

Alnawmasi, Nawaf, and Fred Mannering. “The Impact of Higher Speed Limits on the Frequency and Severity of Freeway Crashes: Accounting for Temporal Shifts and Unobserved Heterogeneity.” Analytic Methods in Accident Research 34 (June 1, 2022): 100205.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. 7th ed., 2018.

Bartholomew, Harland. “Reduction of Street Traffic Congestion by Proper Street Design: How St. Louis Is Meeting Its Problem.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 116, no. 1 (November 1, 1924): 244–46.

Ben-Bassat, Tamar, and David Shinar. “Effect of Shoulder Width, Guardrail and Roadway Geometry on Driver Perception and Behavior.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 43, no. 6 (November 1, 2011): 2142–52.

Brubacher, Jeffrey R., Herbert Chan, Shannon Erdelyi, Gordon Lovegrove, and Farhad Faghihi. "Road safety impact of increased rural highway speed limits in British Columbia, Canada." Sustainability 10, no. 10 (2018): 3555.

California Department of Transportation. “2020-2024 Strategic Highway Safety Plan.” California Safe Roads, May 2023.

———. “California Manual for Setting Speed Limits.” California Department of Transportation, 2020.

———. “California Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Revision 7,” 2023.

———. “Caltrans Director’s Policy Commits to Safe System Approach to Eliminate Deaths and Serious Injuries on California Roadways.” State of California, April 2022.

———. “Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP).” Accessed September 24, 2023.

California Legislative Information. “Bill Text - AB-43 Traffic Safety.,” October 10, 2021.

California Legislative Information. “Vehicle Code - VEH.” Accessed September 23, 2023.

California State Transportation Agency. “Zero Traffic Fatalities Task Force | CalSTA.” Accessed September 23, 2023.

California Traffic Control Devices Committee. “Agenda Item Report.” California Department of Transportation, February 2, 2023.

“Caltrans Director’s Policy Commits to Safe System Approach to Eliminate Deaths and Serious Injuries on California Roadways.” State of California, February 24, 2022.

Casey, Steven M., and Adrian K. Lund. “Changes in Speed and Speed Adaptation Following Increase in National Maximum Speed Limit.” Journal of Safety Research 23, no. 3 (September 1, 1992): 135–46.

City of Mateo. “Resolution to Reduce the Posted Speed Limit in School Zones Consistent with California State Law.” City of San Mateo, 2021.

City of Oakland. “City of Oakland - File #: 22-0819,” 2022.

City of Oakland. “Lowering Speed Limits in Business Activity Districts.” City of Oakland. Accessed September 23, 2023.

City of Sacramento. “City of Sacramento Vision Zero School Safety Study.” City of Sacramento, February 16, 2021.

———. “Vision Zero: Reducing School Zone Speed Limits.” City of Sacramento. Accessed September 23, 2023.

———. “Vision Zero Sacramento Action Plan,” August 14, 2018.

City of San Francisco. “Vision Zero High Injury Network Map.” Accessed September 23, 2023.

City of San Jose. “A Resolution of the Council of the City of San Jose (1) Establishing a 20 MPH Business Activity District Speed Limit on Six Roadway Segments; (2) Adopting the Speed Limit Established by the County of Santa Clara for Portions of Sierra Road for the Segments within the Jurisdiction of San Jose; and (3) Repealing Resolution No. 78961,” June 15, 2022.

City of San Jose. “City of San Jose Blog,” November 1, 2022.

Corbett, Drew. “School Zones - Speed Reduction.” City of San Mateo, December 6, 2021.

Elvik, Rune. “The Non-Linearity of Risk and the Promotion of Environmentally Sustainable Transport.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 41, no. 4 (July 1, 2009): 849–55.

Elvik, Rune, and Torkel Bjørnskau. "Safety-in-numbers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence." Safety science 92 (2017): 274-282.

Elvik, Rune, Anna Vadeby, Tove Hels, and Ingrid van Schagen. “Updated Estimates of the Relationship between Speed and Road Safety at the Aggregate and Individual Levels.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 123 (February 1, 2019): 114–22.

Elvik, Rune, Peter Christensen, and Astrid Helene Amundsen. Speed and Road Accidents: An Evaluation of the Power Model, 2004.

European Commission: Mobility and Transport. “ITS & Vulnerable Road Users.” Accessed September 23, 2023.

Federal Highway Administration. “Appropriate Speed Limits for All Road Users.” United States Department of Transportation, August 2022. Speed Limits_508.pdf

———. “The Safe System Approach.” United States Department of Transportation, June 2022.

Ferrier, Kathleen. “HIN for the WIN.” Vision Zero Network, March 8, 2018.

Fitzpatrick, Kay, Subasish Das, Michael P. Pratt, Karen Dixon, and Tim Gates. “Posted Speed Limit Setting  Procedure and Tool: User Guide.” NCHRP Research Report. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2021.

Forbes, Gerald J., Teresa Gardner, Hugh McGee, and Raghavan Srinivasan. “Methods and Practices for Setting Speed Limits: An Informational Report.” FHWA Safety Program. Federal Highway Administration, April 2012.

Goughnour, Elissa, Michael Dunn, and Dan Gelinne. “Primer on Safe System Approach for Pedestrians and Bicyclists.” Federal Highway Administration, May 2021.

Grembek, Offer, Katherine Chen, Brian D. Taylor, Yu Hong Hwang, Dillon Fitch, Sonia Anthoine, Bingchu, Chen, and Salvador, Grover. “Research Synthesis for the California Zero Traffic Fatalities Task Force.” Final Report. The University of California Institute of Transportation Studies, April 2020.

Hauer, Ezra. “Speed and Safety.” Transportation Research Record 2103, no. 1 (January 1, 2009): 10–17.

Helak, Kelsey, Dietrich Jehle, Daniel McNabb, Amanda Battisti, Steward Sanford, and Mary Claire Lark. “Factors Influencing Injury Severity of Bicyclists Involved in Crashes with Motor Vehicles: Bike Lanes, Alcohol, Lighting, Speed, and Helmet Use.” Southern Medical Journal 110, no. 7 (July 2017): 441–44.

Hussain, Qinaat, Hanqin Feng, Raphael Grzebieta, Tom Brijs, and Jake Olivier. “The Relationship between Impact Speed and the Probability of Pedestrian Fatality during a Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 129 (August 1, 2019): 241–49.

Institute for Road Safety Research. “Speed - What Are Credible Speed Limits?” SWOV. Accessed September 24, 2023.

———. “Towards Credible Speed Limits.” SWOV, November 2007. 2

———. “What Are Safe Speeds?” SWOV. Accessed September 24, 2023.

Institute of Transportation Engineers. “Complete Streets.” Institute of Transportation Engineers. Accessed September 24, 2023.

Islam, Md. Tazul, Karim El-Basyouny, and Shewkar E. Ibrahim. “The Impact of Lowered Residential Speed Limits on Vehicle Speed Behavior.” Safety Science 62 (February 1, 2014): 483–94.

Jurewicz, Chris, Cara Phillips, Michael Tziotis, and Blair Turner. “Model National Guidelines  for Setting Speed Limits  at High-Risk Locations.” Austroads, March 2014.

LACityClerk Connect. “Council File: 21-1223,” December 23, 2021.

LADOT. “Mapping AB43 Speed Limit Reduction in Los Angeles.” Accessed September 23, 2023.

Larsen, Hans F.. “Resolution Establishing Speed Limits.” City of San Jose, August 11, 2010.

LegiScan. “California AB1938 | 2021-2022 | Regular Session,” 2022.

Li, Shanjun. 2012. “Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the ‘Arms Race’ on American Roads.” J of Applied Econometrics 27 (1): 34–62.

Mancebo, Leslie. “Vision Zero Implementation: Reducing School Speed Limits.” City of Sacramento, June 20, 2019.

Mancebo, Leslie, Jennifer Donlon-Wyant, and Ryan Moore. “Vision Zero Implementation: Reducing School Zone Speed Limits.” City of Sacramento, June 4, 2019.

Mannering, Fred. “An Empirical Analysis of Driver Perceptions of the Relationship between Speed Limits and Safety.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 12, no. 2 (March 1, 2009): 99–106.

NACTO. Urban Street Design Guide. Washington, DC: Island Press/Center for Resource Economics, 2013.

National Association of City Transportation Officials. “ACTIVITY LEVEL & LAND USE,” August 20, 2020.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. “Why Your Reaction Time Matters at Speed.” August 2015. Accessed December 1, 2023.

National Transportation Safety Board. “Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger Vehicles.” Safety Study. National Transportation Safety Board, July 25, 2017.

National Transportation Safety Research Board. “Pedestrian Safety.” Special Investigation Report. Washington, D.C., September 25, 2018.

Nehiba, Cody, and Justin Tyndall. "Highways and pedestrian deaths in US neighborhoods." Regional Science and Urban Economics no. 102 (2023): 103938.

Recarte, Miguel A., and Luis M. Nunes. “Perception of Speed in an Automobile: Estimation and Production.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 2, no. 4 (1996): 291–304.

“Recommendations for California Statewide Guidance on High Injury Networks,” September 2021.

Reynolds, Seleta J.. “Implementation of School Safety Zone Speed Limits / City of Los Angeles Safe Routes to School (SRTS) Strategic Plan.” City of Los Angeles, February 4, 2016.

———. “Speed Limit Adjustments Under Assembly Bill 43.” City of Los Angeles, February 10, 2022.

Ristow, John. “Resolution Establishing Speed Limits.” City of San Jose, June 13, 2022.

San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. “Tenderloin Speed Limits and No Turn on Red.” Text. SFMTA. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, March 15, 2021.

San Francisco Municipal Transportation Authority. “Proposed Street Changes.” San Francisco Municipal Transportation Authority, February 19, 2021.

Silvano, Ary P., and Karl L. Bang. “Impact of Speed Limits and Road Characteristics on Free-Flow Speed in Urban Areas.” Journal of Transportation Engineering 142, no. 2 (February 1, 2016): 04015039.

Solomon, David. “Accidents on Main Rural Highways Related to Speed, Driver, and Vehicle.” Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Commerce, July 1964.,%20Driver,%20and%20Vehicle.pdf

Snowden, Robert J., Nicola Stimpson, and Roy A. Ruddle. “Speed Perception Fogs up as Visibility Drops.” Nature 392, no. 6675 (April 1998): 450–450.

Taylor, Marie C., D. A. Lynam, and A. Baruya. The effects of drivers' speed on the frequency of road accidents. Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory, 2000.

Tefft, Brian C. 2013. “Impact Speed and a Pedestrian’s Risk of Severe Injury or Death.” Accident Analysis & Prevention 50: 871–78.

TJKM. “Recommendations Report for Reduced School Zone Speed Limits.” City of Walnut Creek, May 19, 2016.

Toda, Ribeka. “Fast, Furious & Fatal: An Assessment of Speed-Setting Methodology in California.” Los Angeles: UCLA Institute of Transportation Studies, May 2018.

Tyndall, Justin. 2023. “The Effect of Vehicle Size On Pedestrian Death Risk.” SSRN 4505494

United States Department of Transportation. “Complete Streets.” U.S. Department of Transportation, December 23, 2021.

———. “National Roadway Safety Strategy,” January 2022.

United States Department of Transportation. 2000. “Road Function Classifications.” Federal Highway Administration.

Vadeby, Anna, and Åsa Forsman. “Traffic Safety Effects of New Speed Limits in Sweden.” Accident Analysis & Prevention, Road Safety on Five Continents 2016 - Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil., 114 (May 1, 2018): 34–39.

Vision Zero Network. “Safety Over Speed.” Vision Zero Network. Accessed September 23, 2023.

Zahabi, Seyed Amir H., Jillian Strauss, Kevin Manaugh, and Luis F. Miranda-Moreno. “Estimating Potential Effect of Speed Limits, Built Environment, and Other Factors on Severity of Pedestrian and Cyclist Injuries in Crashes.” Transportation Research Record 2247, no. 1 (January 1, 2011): 81–90.


This Toolkit does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation. This Toolkit is not intended to replace the existing Caltrans mandatory or advisory standards and is not intended to be a substitute for engineering knowledge, experience or judgment. This Toolkit promotes better access to helpful information and concepts from various agencies and organizations. UC Berkeley and Caltrans acknowledge the existence of other practices and provide this Toolkit for reference and direction for those responsible for making professional engineering or other design decisions. 

Please be aware that neither UC Berkeley nor Caltrans is the author of the external sources contained in this Toolkit and are therefore not responsible for errors or omissions that may be contained within those external sources. The references contained in this Toolkit are provided for the user’s convenience. The content or information in such references is the sole responsibility of their respective authors and/or owners.