Pedestrian Safety

What They Don’t Know Can Kill Them

Mitman, Meghan F.
Ragland, David R.

Traffic safety researchers have long argued that driver behavior outweighs physical elements (such as road design) as a causal factor in motor vehicle collisions. A fundamental causal component of pedestrian-vehicle collisions is also behavior—that of the driver and that of the pedestrian. One determinant of this behavior may be whether the driver, the pedestrian, or both understand the motor vehicle code, which demarcates right-of-way in pedestrian-vehicle interactions. That is, inappropriate or unlawful behavior may occur because the law is not understood or is misunderstood. Previous...

Pedestrian Counting Methods at Intersections: a Comparative Study

Diogenes, Mara Chagas
Greene-Roesel, Ryan
Arnold, Lindsay S.
Ragland, David R.

Resources for implementing countermeasures to reduce pedestrian collisions in urban centers are usually allocated on the basis of need, which is determined by risk studies. They commonly rely on pedestrian volumes at intersections. The methods used to estimate pedestrian volumes include direct counts and surveys, but few studies have addressed the accuracy of these methods. This paper investigates the accuracy of three common counting methods: manual counts using sheets, manual counts using clickers, and manual counts using video cameras. The counts took place in San Francisco. For the...

Child Restraint Use: Workbook and Guide for Evaluating Community-based Programs

Ragland, David R.
Geyer, Judy A.
Cooper, Jill F.

The leading cause of injury and death for children in California is motor vehicle crashes. To prevent these needless tragedies, the California Office of Traffic Safety (OTS), through the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency, funds child passenger safety programs throughout the state. This workbook is designed to be used by these local programs to 1) evaluate the impact of their activities on child restraint use, 2) evaluate results to improve or modify the programs as needed, and 3) meet contractual evaluation requirements. Program evaluations can be difficult for local programs due...

Relative Burden of Distracted Driving Fatalities by Characteristic

Griswold, Julia B.
Grembek, Offer

We were glad to see discussion of the dangers of distracted driving to vulnerable road users in the article by Stimpson et al. in the November/December 2013 issue of Public Health Reports. However, we question the conclusion that pedestrian and bicyclist victims of distracted driving crashes are disproportionately nonHispanic white. This inference appears to be drawn from the results in Table 1 of the article, where the rates are calculated per one million total population, which fails to account for the different sizes of the populations of each race/ethnicity. To correctly evaluate the...

Identifying Factors that Determine Bicycle and Pedestrian-Involved Collision Rates that Affect Bicycle and Pedestrian Demand at Multi-Lane Roundabouts

Arnold, Lindsay S.
Flannery, Aimee
Ledbetter, Lauren
Bills, Tierra
Jones, Michael G.
Ragland, David R.
Spautz, Laura

This project examined the safety and demand issues for pedestrians and bicyclists at multi-lane roundabouts through a literature review, case studies, in-field counts and surveys, focus groups, and video analysis. This document presents research findings, synthesizes current information on best practices, and makes recommendations to assist local agencies planning and designing safer multi-lane roundabouts. These findings should help local agencies and Caltrans create roundabouts that better and more safely address the needs of bicyclists and pedestrians. The current literature is referred...

Experimental Research of Relationship between Pedestrian Stopping Distance and Walking Speed to Avoid Pedestrian Crowd Stampede Accident

Zhang, Yuanyuan
Chen, Xiaohong
Li, Na

Stampede accidents usually take place in crowded areas in transfer stations, sports stadiums, shopping malls, religious places and other similar areas. One of the causes of stampedes is that people do not have enough distance to stop themselves when there are emergencies. Like vehicles, pedestrians also need stopping distance when they want to stop from a certain speed, especially in a sudden situation without any previous notice. People who could not stop in time crush into or step upon other people, and may trigger a stampede accident. Analysis of worldwide stampede accidents reveals the...

Impacts of Pedestrians on Capacity and Delay of Major Street Through Traffic at Two-Way Stop-Controlled Intersections

Yang, Zhao
Zhang, Yuanyuan
Zhu, Renwei
Ye, Xiaofei
Jiang, Xiaohong

This paper aims to estimate the impacts of pedestrians on capacity and average control delay for the major street through traffic at two-way stop-controlled (TWSC) intersections. A procedure was proposed to estimate the expected delay for major street through vehicles based on the pedestrian arrival time and motorist yielding behavior. Field data were collected to calibrate the crucial parameters in the established models. The proposed models were then validated against field measured data. It was found that the calibrated models provided reasonable delay estimates. Based on the...

Trauma Center-Based Surveillance of Nontraffic Pedestrian Injury among California Children

Rice, Thomas M.
Trent, Roger B.
Bernacki, Kate
Rice, Jennifer K.
Lovette, Bonnie
Hoover, Eileen
Fennell, Janette
Aistrich, Anna Zacher
Wiltsek, Dana
Corman, Ellen
Anderson, Craig L.
Sherck, John

Introduction: Every year in the United States, thousands of young children are injured by passenger vehicles in driveways or parking areas. Little is known about risk factors, and incidence rates are difficult to estimate because ascertainment using police collision reports or media sources is incomplete. This study used surveillance at trauma centers to identify incidents and parent interviews to obtain detailed information on incidents, vehicles, and children.

Methods: Eight California trauma centers conducted surveillance of nontraffic pedestrian collision injury to children aged...

A Methodology for Counting Pedestrians at Intersections: Using Automated Counters to Extrapolate Weekly Volumes from Short Manual Counts

Schneider, Robert J.
Arnold, Lindsay S.
Ragland, David R.

Accurate methods of counting pedestrians are needed to quantify exposure for safety analysis, rank infrastructure improvements and safety programs by priority, evaluate the benefits of pedestrian projects, develop models of pedestrian volumes, and track changes in pedestrian activity over time. However, pedestrian counts are still much less common than motor vehicle counts in most communities. In addition, existing count methodologies are not standardized and rarely provide enough information to extrapolate to weekly, monthly, or annual volumes. This exploratory study presents a...

Pedestrian Crash Risk on Boundary Roadways University Campus Case Study

Schneider, Robert J.
Grembek, Offer
Braughton, Matthew

Prominent pedestrian trip attractors, such as college campuses and major urban parks, are often surrounded by roadways with high volumes of motor vehicle traffic. Although many pedestrians cross busy boundary roadways, relatively little is known about the pedestrian crash risk along these types of facilities. This study quantifies pedestrian crash risk at roadway intersections on the boundary of the University of California, Berkeley, campus during typical spring and fall semester weekdays. Manual pedestrian counts were extrapolated with data from three automated counter locations to...