Pedestrian Safety

Factors Associated with Hit-and-Run Pedestrian Fatalities and Driver Identification

MacLeod, Kara E.
Griswold, Julia B.
Arnold, Lindsay S.
Ragland, David R.
2010

Because hit-and-run crashes account for a significant share of pedestrian fatalities, a better understanding of these crashes will assist efforts to reduce pedestrian fatalities. Of the more than 48,000 pedestrian deaths that were recorded in the United States between 1998 and 2007 (Fatality Accident Reporting System [FARS]), 18.1% of them were the victims of hit-and-run crashes, and the percentage of fatal pedestrian hit-and-runs has been rising as the number of all pedestrian fatalities has decreased. Using FARS data on single pedestrian fatal victim crashes between 1998-2007,...

Association between Roadway Intersection Characteristics and Pedestrian Crash Risk in Alameda County, California

Schneider, Robert J.
Diogenes, Mara Chagas
Arnold, Lindsay S.
Attaset, Vanvisa
Griswold, Julia B.
Ragland, David R.
2010

Each year from 1998 to 2007, an average of approximately 4,800 pedestrians were killed and 71,000 pedestrians were injured in United States traffic crashes. Because many pedestrian crashes occur at roadway intersections, it is important to understand the intersection characteristics that are associated with pedestrian crash risk. This study uses detailed pedestrian crash data and pedestrian volume estimates to analyze pedestrian crash risk at 81 intersections along arterial and collector roadways in Alameda County, California. The analysis compares pedestrian crash rates (crashes per 10,...

Influential Factors on Level of Injury in Pedestrian Crashes: Applications of Ordered Probit Model with Robust Standard Errors

Jang, Kitae
Park, Shin Hyoung
Chung, Sungbong
Song, Ki Han
2010

Pedestrian-involved crashes that occurred in the city of San Francisco over a six-year period, 2002–2007, were analyzed to examine various influential factors on the injury severity of pedestrian crashes. The crash data extracted from the Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System (SWITRS) include five categorical levels of injury severity in traffic crashes also in addition to detailed information about the features of each crash. This study applied an ordered probit model for injury severity analysis to specify the ordinal nature of injury categories. To draw unbiased implications...

Effectiveness of a Commercially Available Automated Pedestrian Counting Device in Urban Environments: Comparison with Manual Counts

Greene-Roesel, Ryan
Diogenes, Mara Chagas
Ragland, David R.
Lindau, Luis Antonio
2008

High-quality continuous counts of pedestrian volume are necessary to evaluate the effects of pedestrian infrastructure investments and to improve pedestrian volume modeling. Automated pedestrian counting devices can meet the need for continuous counts of pedestrian volume and reduce the labor cost associated with manual pedestrian counting and data entry. However, most existing automated pedestrian devices are not well suited to the task of counting pedestrians in outdoor environments, and little is known about their effectiveness and accuracy. This study addresses the lack of...

San Francisco PedSafe II Project Outcomes and Lessons Learned

Hua, Jenna
Gutierrez, Nicolas
Banerjee, Ipsita
Markowitz, Frank
Ragland, David R.
2009

This paper presents the project outcomes and lessons learned from the San Francisco PedSafe, a comprehensive pedestrian safety planning and engineering project funded by the Federal Highway Administration. It assesses the effectiveness of the Phase I pedestrian safety plan targeted to higher-injury areas by evaluating the Phase II implementation of a range of mostly low-to- moderate-cost innovative safety improvements.

A total of 13 countermeasures (comprised of nine general engineering countermeasures and four Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)...

A Pilot Model for Estimating Pedestrian Intersection Crossing Volumes

Schneider, Robert J.
Arnold, Lindsay S.
Ragland, David R.
2009

Better data on pedestrian volumes are needed to improve the safety, comfort, and convenience of pedestrian movement. This requires more carefully-developed methodologies for counting pedestrians as well as improved methods of modeling pedestrian volumes. This paper describes the methodology used to create a simple, pilot model of pedestrian intersection crossing volumes in Alameda County, CA. The model is based on weekly pedestrian volumes at a sample of 50 intersections with a wide variety of surrounding land uses, transportation system attributes, and neighborhood socioeconomic...

Effects of Weather Variables on Pedestrian Volumes in Alameda County, California

Attaset, Vanvisa
Schneider, Robert J.
Arnold, Lindsay S.
Ragland, David R.
2010

Accurate estimates of pedestrian volume are important for analyzing pedestrian movement and safety; methods to estimate these volumes are continuously evolving and being improved. However, relatively little is known about the impact of weather conditions on pedestrian activity. This paper evaluates the effect of weather by including temperature, cloud cover, wind, and precipitation variables in a linear regression model of pedestrian volumes. Pedestrian volumes were collected over approximately one year using automated counters at 13 different locations in Alameda County, California...

The Effects of Transportation Corridor Features on Driver and Pedestrian Behavior and on Community Economic Vitality: Final Study Report

Sanders, Rebecca L.
Griffin, Ashleigh
MacLeod, Kara E.
Cooper, Jill F.
Ragland, David R.
2012

This report presents the results from a multiyear effort to develop and test performance measures for evaluating the impact of landscaping and roadside features on pedestrian and bicyclist safety and mobility and economic vitality for Caltrans’ urban arterial network. The first phase of the study was a literature review, and the second phase focused on developing performance measures. The third and fourth phases focused on testing the proposed performance measures consisting of an infrastructure analysis, policy review, safety analysis and a pedestrian and bicyclist intercept survey on two...

Development and Application of the San Francisco Pedestrian Intersection Volume Model

Schneider, Robert J.
Henry, Todd
Mitman, Meghan F.
Stonehill, Laura
Koehler, Jesse
2013

The San Francisco pedestrian volume modeling process refined the methodology used to develop previous intersection-based models and incorporated variables that were tailored to estimate walking activity in the local urban context. The methodology included two main steps. First, manual and automated pedestrian counts were taken at a sample of 50 study intersections with a variety of characteristics. A series of factor adjustments were applied to produce an annual pedestrian crossing estimate at each intersection. Second, log-linear regression modeling was used to identify...

Documenting Targeted Behaviors Associated with Pedestrian Safety

Cooper, Jill F.
Schneider, Robert J.
Ryan, Sherry
Co, Sean
2013

The purpose of this study is to provide an exploratory analysis of the proportion of pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers exhibiting four specific behaviors at 12 intersections near transit stations in 4 the San Francisco Bay Area. The target behaviors include: 1) pedestrians crossing the roadway while using a mobile device, such as a cell phone, 2) pedestrians crossing a signalized intersection against a red light, 3) bicyclists running a red light at a signalized intersection, and 4) automobiles turning right on red without stopping. These four behaviors are important because they...