Cost-Effectiveness of Traffic Safety Interventions in the United States

Vahidnia, Farnaz
Walsh, Julia

OBJECTIVE: In order to demonstrate the results of all available studies on cost-effectiveness and traffic safety, and report them in a comparable format, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on the subject. Knowledge of cost-effective (CE) traffic safety programs that result in reduced motor vehicle crashes and fatalities is essential to city planners, managers, and police.

METHOD: Using a systematic approach to literature review, the relevant literature has been identified through the use of electronic databases, hand searching of journals, scanning reference lists...

Driver/Pedestrian Understanding and Behavior at Marked and Unmarked Crosswalks

Mitman, Meghan F.
Ragland, David R.

Pedestrian injuries at crosswalk locations represent a significant problem. In 2002, 22.7 percent of US pedestrians involved in collisions were in a crosswalk at the time of the collision, and over 96% of these occurred at an intersection. Almost all crosswalk collisions resulted in pedestrian injury or fatality (98.6 percent), and about one-third resulted in severe or fatal injury (National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) and General Estimates System (GES) 2002). As the owner of the California State Highway System, Caltrans is responsible for providing access to safe and...

The Effects of Transportation Corridors' Roadside Design Features on User Behavior and Safety, and Their Contributions to Health, Enviornmental Quality, and Community Economic Vitality: a Literature Review

Macdonald, Elizabeth
Sanders, Rebecca
Supawanich, Paul

A transportation corridor communicates many things to its users through its design elements. What it communicates can affect the travel mode a user decides to take, the speed at which a motorist decides to drive, whether a pedestrian will walk along or across a street, and whether a resident will bicycle to local shops. Design elements give visual cues to the users of transportation corridors that let them know where they are and how to behave. The vehicle lane widths, presence or absence of sidewalks, and presence or absence of buffering elements such as street trees and parked cars all...

Red-Light-Running Collision Avoidance

Grembek, Offer
Zhou, Kun
Zhang, Wei-Bin

Red light running (RLR) problem has been recognized as a significant safety problem in California as well as throughout the United States. This paper follows a two step process to develop enhanced signal timing models for possible reduction of RLR. In the first step, field data are collected with one-second resolution and discrete choice models are estimated to determine the significant influencing factors of RLR; in the second step, based on the findings from the first step, T7F software package as well as custom designed programs is used to find the enhanced signal timing plans that can...

A Comparative Safety Study of Limited versus Continuous Access High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Facilities

Jang, Kitae
Ragland, David R.
Chan, Ching-Yao
The report summarizes the findings from comparative studies of safety performance between two different types of High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) facilities in California - continuous access versus limited access. The findings show that HOV facilities with limited access offer no safety advantages over those with continuous access, whether measured by percentage of collisions, collisions per mile, collisions per VMT, or collision severity. As part of the present research, the authors investigated the relationship...

Seamless Travel: Measuring Bicycle and Pedestrian Activity in San Diego County and its Relationship to Land Use, Transportation, Safety, and Facility Type

Jones, Michael G.
Ryan, Sherry
Donlon, Jennifer
Ledbetter, Lauren
Ragland, David R.
Arnold, Lindsay S.

This paper provides the data collection and research results for the Seamless Travel project. The Seamless Travel Project is a research project funded by Caltrans and managed by the University of California Traffic Safety Center, with David Ragland, PhD., as the Principal Investigator and Michael Jones as the Project Manager. The project is funded by Caltrans Division of Innovation and Research and is being conducted by the Traffic Safety Center of University of California Berkeley and Alta Planning + Design. Measuring bicycle and pedestrian activity is a key element to achieving the goals...

Evaluation of Traffic and Environment Effects on Skid Resistance and Safety Performance of Rubberized Open-grade Asphalt Concrete

Oh, Soon Mi
Ragland, David R.
Chan, Ching-Yao

Wet pavement-related collisions represent a significant traffic safety concern, due in part to the lack of adequate friction between tire and pavement, known as skid resistance. State agencies employ a skid number (SN) system, based on a standard test procedure in which a locked wheel is towed at 40 mph and the skid number (SN40) is calculated from the measured resistance. SN40 is used as a reference value for speeds both greater than and less than 40 mph. For most Departments of Transportation (DOTs) in the nation, excluding California, pavements for which the SN40 is below 30 are deemed...

Applying Safety Treatments To Rail-Highway At-Grade Crossings

Cooper, Douglas L.
Ragland, David R.

At-grade rail crossings provide different levels of warnings and/or barriers to alert drivers to the potential dangers presented by approaching trains. For some drivers, an activated warning system, rather than being a signal to stop, merely serves as a cue for the need to make a decision whether or not to cross. In California, for the ten-year period from 2001 to 2010, the result was 1,033 trainvehicle crashes resulting in 157 deaths and 458 injuries. The best solution to rail crossing crashes is to remove the need for the driver to engage in a potentially faulty decision-making process...

Modeling Bicycle Passing Maneuvers on Multilane Separated Bicycle Paths

Li, Zhibin
Wang, Wei
Liu, Pan
Bigham, John M.
Ragland, David R.

Bicycle passing maneuvers represent interferences between bicycle travelers and are important operational attributes of bicycle traffic. The number of bicycle passing maneuvers has been used to evaluate the level of service (LOS) of off-street bicycle facilities. The primary objectives of this paper are to propose a method to model bicycle passing maneuvers on multilane bicycle paths with heavy bicycle traffic and explore the characteristics of those passes. The authors classified bicycle passing maneuvers into free, adjacent, and delayed passes according to the lateral distance...

Variations in Teens' Perception of Risk Factors for Teen Motor Vehicle Collision Injuries

Chen, Katherine L.
Cooper, Jill F.
Grembek, Offer
Henk, Russell
Tisdale, Stacey M.

Teen drivers, especially males, are known to be at greater risk of being involved in a motor vehicle collision than any other age group. While novice teen drivers’ primary risk factors are commonly known, less is known about what teens perceive as risk factors for peers getting hurt or killed in motor vehicle collisions. This mixed methods study uses survey data from the Teens in the Drivers Seat (TDS) program in California to explore (1) teens' perceived risk factors for motor vehicle collision injury; and (2) the relationship between perceived risks and age, gender, and driving...