Data collection

Child Restraint Use: Workbook and Guide for Evaluating Community-based Programs

Ragland, David R.
Geyer, Judy A.
Cooper, Jill F.
2003

The leading cause of injury and death for children in California is motor vehicle crashes. To prevent these needless tragedies, the California Office of Traffic Safety (OTS), through the Business, Transportation and Housing Agency, funds child passenger safety programs throughout the state. This workbook is designed to be used by these local programs to 1) evaluate the impact of their activities on child restraint use, 2) evaluate results to improve or modify the programs as needed, and 3) meet contractual evaluation requirements. Program evaluations can be difficult for local programs due...

Keeping Children Safe in Cars

Cooper, Jill F.
2004

Low-income children face twice the risk of dying from crash-related injuries compared to children from higher income families. To increase safety for these children, the California Health Care Safety Net Institute and the UC Davis Medical Center launched the Child Passenger Safety (CPS) Initiative with funding from the California Office of Traffic Safety. The initiative ran from April, 2001, through September, 2003, and had these goals: to increase safety seat use among families using public health care services; to decrease the rate of safety seat misuse among these families; and to...

Exploring Factors Influencing Bicyclists’ Perception of Comfort on Bicycle Facilities

Li, Zhibin
Wang, Wei
Zhang, Yuanyuan
Lu, Jie
Ragland, David R.
2011

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the physical environmental factors influencing bicyclists‟ perception of comfort on physically separated bicycle paths and on-street bicycle lanes. We also look extensively at comparing the perception of comfort and the contributing factors between the two facility types. Field investigations were conducted at 43 segments on bicycle facilities in the metropolitan area of Nanjing, China. Bicyclists‟ perception of comfort and various environmental conditions were collected. We used an ordered probit (OP) model to analyze the data. Data...

Quantifying the Performance of Countermeasures for Collision Concentration Related to Ramp/Freeway Mainline Junctions

Lee, Joon Ho
Chan, Ching-Yao
Ragland, David R.
2009

This study performed before-and-after analyses (comparisons of collisions before and after the construction of auxiliary lanes) on collision rate at nine study sites in California in order to achieve two objectives: (i) to estimate the freeway Crash/Collision Reduction Factor (CRF) for auxiliary lanes, and (ii) to develop design guidelines for the construction of auxiliary lanes. Findings indicate that on average, collision rates decreased by 17.3 percent at nine study sites. The study also found that after construction of auxiliary lanes at two study sites, collision rates increased when...

Identifying Factors that Determine Bicycle and Pedestrian-Involved Collision Rates that Affect Bicycle and Pedestrian Demand at Multi-Lane Roundabouts

Arnold, Lindsay S.
Flannery, Aimee
Ledbetter, Lauren
Bills, Tierra
Jones, Michael G.
Ragland, David R.
Spautz, Laura
2010

This project examined the safety and demand issues for pedestrians and bicyclists at multi-lane roundabouts through a literature review, case studies, in-field counts and surveys, focus groups, and video analysis. This document presents research findings, synthesizes current information on best practices, and makes recommendations to assist local agencies planning and designing safer multi-lane roundabouts. These findings should help local agencies and Caltrans create roundabouts that better and more safely address the needs of bicyclists and pedestrians. The current literature is referred...

Bicycle Helmet Use: Workbook and Guide for Evaluating Community-Based Programs

Geyer, Judy
Cooper, Jill F.
Ragland, David R.
2003

Two thirds of bicycle deaths occur as a result of traumatic brain injury; 88% of these injuries can be prevented by a helmet. In 1994, the State of California passed a law requiring all bicyclists under the age of 18 to wear helmets. Despite these legal obligations, many bicyclists still do not wear helmets. The estimates of bicycle helmet use is disparate throughout the state, with some communities reporting up to 80% use and others, especially inner-city areas, reporting less than 10% use.

The California Office of Traffic Safety (OTS) provides grants for bicycle helmet education...

A Multidimensional Clustering Algorithm for Studying Fatal Road Crashes

Fishbain, Barak
Grembek, Offer
2014

Road fatalities are rare outcomes of events that occur in a small time-space region. Although the exact chain of events for each fatality is unique, there are inherent similarities between road fatalities. The science of road safety is dedicated to identifying such similarities, mainly using statistical analysis tools. Researchers typically analyze patterns that emerge over space, such as hot-spot studies, or patterns that emerge over time, such as before-after studies. Traffic research enumerates 84 parameters that characterize a road fatality. A vast number of papers have tried to...

Development of a Variable Speed Limit Strategy Based on Car Following Behaviors for Improving Freeway Safety Under Severe Weathers

Li, Zhibin
Liu, Pan
Li, Ye
Xu, Chengcheng
Yu, Hao
Zhang, Yuanyuan
2014

Severe weather reduces sight distance and increases stopping distance of traveling vehicles. Traffic collisions are likely to occur when vehicles encounter traffic congestions on freeways under severe weathers. The primary objective of this study is to develop a control strategy of variable speed limit (VSL) to improve freeway safety in different types of weather conditions. The control strategy aims to reduce vehicle speeds gradually prior to congestions. A car-following model was used to simulate the behaviors of drivers in different visibility and road adhesion conditions. The...

Experimental Research of Relationship between Pedestrian Stopping Distance and Walking Speed to Avoid Pedestrian Crowd Stampede Accident

Zhang, Yuanyuan
Chen, Xiaohong
Li, Na
2010

Stampede accidents usually take place in crowded areas in transfer stations, sports stadiums, shopping malls, religious places and other similar areas. One of the causes of stampedes is that people do not have enough distance to stop themselves when there are emergencies. Like vehicles, pedestrians also need stopping distance when they want to stop from a certain speed, especially in a sudden situation without any previous notice. People who could not stop in time crush into or step upon other people, and may trigger a stampede accident. Analysis of worldwide stampede accidents reveals the...

Wayfinding-Oriented Design for Passenger Guidance Signs in Large-Scale Transit Center in China

Zhang, Yuanyuan
Chen, Xiaohong
Jiang, Jingwen
2010

Transit centers should offer well-designed guidance signs to help passengers find their way to desired destinations easily and quickly. The current design of guidance signs in large-scale transit centers in China, however, is based almost solely on interior and art design, with virtually no accounting for passengers’ wayfinding requirements. As a tentative effort to fill that need, this study presents a wayfinding-oriented design for guidance signs. The case of a large transit center in China is used to illustrate how wayfinding requirements can be incorporated into specific design. In...