Road User Behavior

Limitations of Data on Cell Phone Involvement in Collisions: A Case Study of California

Griswold, Julia B.
Grembek, Offer

With the increasing prevalence of mobile technology and high-profile crashes bringing attention to distracted driving, data on cell phone involvement in collisions is critical for understanding the extent of the problem, examining the effectiveness of policies, and developing interventions to improve safety. Some limitations of existing data have been previously identified, but this paper examines the specific case of California’s collision data.

Observational Study of Cell Phone and Texting Use Among California Drivers 2015 and Comparison to 2011 through 2014 Data

Cooper, Jill F.
Ragland, David R.
Ewald, Katrin
Wasserman, Lisa
Murphy, Christopher J.

In the 2015 observations, the majority of drivers (73.0%) drove alone, and 22.0% had one passenger in the car. The increase of drivers driving alone since 2014 (4.8%) and the decrease (3.5%) of drivers driving with one passenger is significant (Table 13).

Property Damage Crash Equivalency Factors for Solving the Crash Frequency-Severity Dilemma: Case Study on South Korean Rural Roads

Oh, Jutaek
Washington, Simon
Lee, Dongmin

Safety interventions (e.g. median barriers, photo enforcement) and road features (e.g. median type and width) can influence crash severities, crash frequencies, or both. Both dimensions—crash frequency and crash severity—are needed to obtain a full accounting of road safety. Extensive literature and common sense both dictate that all crashes are not ‘created’ equal—with fatalities costing society more than 1000 times the cost of property damage only crashes.

Impact of Traffic States on Freeway Collision Frequency

Yeo, Hwasoo
Jang, Kitae
Skabardonis, Alexander

Freeway collisions are thought to be affected by traffic states. To reduce the number of collisions, the study to reveal how the traffic states influence collisions are required. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to suggest a method to relate traffic states to collision frequency in freeway. We first defined section- based traffic phases showing traffic state of a section using upstream and downstream traffic states: free flow (FF), back of queue (BQ), bottleneck front (BN) and congestion (CT).

Low Cost Upgrades to At-Grade Crossing Safety Devices

Cooper, Douglas L.
Ragland, David R.
Felschundneff, Grace

The only way to absolutely prevent all drivers from going around lowered gates at level rail-highway crossings is to make it physically impossible, or at least very difficult, for them to do so. While there are various options to accomplish this (constructing a separation of grade, closing the crossing, or deploying an impenetrable concrete barrier), most have high monetary or social costs. Alternative approaches—such as channelization devices and long-arm gates—while not 100 percent effective, can be used to prevent deaths and injuries while remaining economically feasible.