Data collection

Evaluation of Traffic and Environment Effects on Skid Resistance and Safety Performance of Rubberized Open-grade Asphalt Concrete

Oh, Soon Mi
Ragland, David R.
Chan, Ching-Yao

Wet pavement-related collisions represent a significant traffic safety concern, due in part to the lack of adequate friction between tire and pavement, known as skid resistance. State agencies employ a skid number (SN) system, based on a standard test procedure in which a locked wheel is towed at 40 mph and the skid number (SN40) is calculated from the measured resistance. SN40 is used as a reference value for speeds both greater than and less than 40 mph. For most Departments of Transportation (DOTs) in the nation, excluding California, pavements for which the SN40 is below 30 are deemed...

Cross-Section Designs for the Safety Performance of Buffer-Separated High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes

Jang, Kitae
Kang, Sanghyeok
Seo, Jongwon
Chan, Ching-Yao

High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes have been deployed as a tool for traffic management in urban freeway systems to improve reliability and mobility of trips. As they are planned to traverse crowded urban areas, it is often difficult to acquire sufficient right-of-way for retrofitting HOV lanes to existing freeway systems with recommended cross-sectional design. The present study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal set of cross-sectional design for safety performance by evaluating individual impact of each design element on safety as well as tradeoffs between them. Detailed...

Modeling Bicycle Passing Maneuvers on Multilane Separated Bicycle Paths

Li, Zhibin
Wang, Wei
Liu, Pan
Bigham, John M.
Ragland, David R.

Bicycle passing maneuvers represent interferences between bicycle travelers and are important operational attributes of bicycle traffic. The number of bicycle passing maneuvers has been used to evaluate the level of service (LOS) of off-street bicycle facilities. The primary objectives of this paper are to propose a method to model bicycle passing maneuvers on multilane bicycle paths with heavy bicycle traffic and explore the characteristics of those passes. The authors classified bicycle passing maneuvers into free, adjacent, and delayed passes according to the lateral distance...

Building a Highway Linear Referencing System from Preexisting Reference Marker Measurements for Transportation Data Management

Bigham, John M.
Kang, Sanghyeok

To manage events associated with highways, data systems have been developed to store relevant event information. To reap the full benefits of geographic information system technologies, the relative locations can be integrated into a linear referencing system. The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for building a highway linear referencing system by applying preexisting marker measurements to a digital street network. The system was developed for locating motor vehicle collisions in California and resulted in improved accuracy compared to a previously developed...

Airports and Bicycles: what are the obstacles and incentives for operators to improve bicycle access?

Orrick, Phyllis
Frick, Karen Trapenberg

In this paper we use a case study approach to examine how airport operators are addressing bicycle access to their properties and the motivations and obstacles they face, in light of new policies to integrate bicycles, along with transit and walking, into transportation planning, design and construction, and to increase bicycles’ role in the transportation system. Eight influential elements emerged from our review of policy documents and research literature. We used them to guide interviews with key informants. The eight elements are: governance structure, location, access roads,...

Safe Routes to Transit Program Evaluation Final Report

Sanders, Rebecca L.
Weinzimmer, David
Dittrich, Heidi
Cooper, Jill F.

Safe Routes to Transit (SR2T) was initiated in 2004 with the adoption of the San Francisco Bay Area’s Regional Measure 2 which established a $1 increase in Bay Area bridge tolls. The intended purpose of this funding was to support various transportation projects within the region in order to reduce congestion along the seven state-owned toll bridge corridors. Consistent with this purpose, the SR2T Program was awarded $20 million to fund enhancements to increase walking and cycling to regional transit stations. SR2T funds were used for the following improvements, among others: ssecure...

Variations in Teens' Perception of Risk Factors for Teen Motor Vehicle Collision Injuries

Chen, Katherine L.
Cooper, Jill F.
Grembek, Offer
Henk, Russell
Tisdale, Stacey M.

Teen drivers, especially males, are known to be at greater risk of being involved in a motor vehicle collision than any other age group. While novice teen drivers’ primary risk factors are commonly known, less is known about what teens perceive as risk factors for peers getting hurt or killed in motor vehicle collisions. This mixed methods study uses survey data from the Teens in the Drivers Seat (TDS) program in California to explore (1) teens' perceived risk factors for motor vehicle collision injury; and (2) the relationship between perceived risks and age, gender, and driving...

Predictors of Nonstandard Helmet Use Among San Francisco Bay–Area Motorcyclists

Tsui, Casey K.
Rice, Thomas M.
Pande, Swati
Objective: The use of helmets that do not comply with safety standards is common in California. The objective of this study was to describe the use of these nonstandard helmets among San Francisco Bay–area (SFBA) motorcyclists and to identify personal and motorcycle characteristics that are associated with the use of nonstandard helmets. Methods: A survey of 860 SFBA motorcyclists was conducted. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios to compare probabilities of nonstandard helmet use. Results: Fifteen percent of motorcyclists reported wearing a nonstandard helmet sometimes...

Error Consideration for Geocoding Police Reported Collision Data in California

Bigham, John M.
Oum, Sang Hyouk

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are frequently used to analyze collision data. In order to 3 utilize GIS, the data must be geocoded, or assigned a latitude and longitude coordinate by 4 translating a descriptive location onto street network data. However, the ability for accurate 5 spatial analysis can be limited by geocoding errors that may occur due to limitations in data 6 collection technologies, incorrect data entry due to human error, or inaccurate street reference 7 data. In the state of California there is an increased opportunity for data entry errors, given the 8 long...

Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Automated Pedestrian Counting Devices Report

Bu, Fanping
Greene-Roesel, Ryan
Diogenes, Mara Chagas
Ragland, David R.

Automated methods are commonly used to count motorized vehicles, but are not frequently used to count pedestrians. This is because the automated technologies available to count pedestrians are not very developed, and their effectiveness has not been widely researched. Moreover, most automated methods are used primarily for the purpose of detecting, rather than counting, pedestrians (Dharmaraju et al., 2001; Noyce and Dharmaraju, 2002; Noyce et al., 2006). Automated pedestrian counting technologies are attractive because they have the potential to reduce the labor costs associated with...