research >>Bicycle-Oriented Design
"Airports and Bicycles: what are the obstacles and incentives for operators to improve bicycle access?"
In this paper we use a case study approach to examine how airport operators are addressing bicycle access to their properties and the motivations and obstacles they face, in light of new policies to integrate bicycles, along with transit and walking, into transportation planning, design and construction, and to increase bicycles’ role in the transportation system. Eight influential elements emerged from our review of policy documents and research literature. We used them to guide interviews with key informants. The eight elements are: governance structure, location, access roads, self-perceived environmental stewardship, spending restrictions on non-aviation transportation improvements, proximity to transit, policies and mandates to reduce environmental impacts and land use constraints. We report on seven cases, selected on the basis of inclusion in studies on key aspects of airport ground access and, for one, identification as exemplary. They are: Oakland International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Boston Logan International Airport Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport, and Portland, an exemplar recommended by several key informants. We limit our discussion to employee bicycle access because that has been the focus of airport operators that have made these investments and programs to reduce single-occupancy vehicle travel at airports. In aggregating the interviews, we identified replicable approaches to improving bicycle access. We also identified examples of innovative funding for multi-modal access using revenues generated by airport Passenger Facilities Charges. Finally, we identified areas for additional research: airport employee commute needs, ground access mode choice and operator costs and benefits of bicycle access investments.
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—Phyllis Orrick, SafeTREC, and Karen Trapenberg Frick, University of California Transportation Center
SafeTREC Communications Director Phyllis Orrick will speak on bicycle-oriented design as part of a panel for the breakout session, "Active transportation and the built environmen:t How can our roadways and other transportation facilities encourage active mobility while respecting the needs of all users?" Moderator: Jaime Rodriguez, City of Palo Alto. Additional panelists: John Ciccarelli, Bicycle Solutions; Brett Hondorp, Principal, Alta Planning + Design; and Jeremy Nelson, Principal, Nelson\Nygaard. Co-hosted by Stanford Hospital and the Silicon Valley Bicycle Coalition.
Why Do Building Owners Invest in Bicycle-Oriented Design?
(Presented at the 2011 Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board)
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This research presents the results of a qualitative survey of commercial owners, managers, and occupants in the City of Berkeley who have invested in on-site bicycle facilities such as secure parking, showers, changing rooms, and clothing lockers, what we are calling "bicycle-oriented design" (BOD).
The sites represent a selection of building types common in the commercial building stock in U.S. cities.
The research is designed to answer three questions about the use of BOD: (1) what were motivations behind the decision to invest in BOD (2) what are the challenges and rewards for investing in BOD? and (3) what types of BOD were chosen? The survey was carried out through structured interviews and by site visits.
This research builds on the growing literature on bicycle facilities by exploring the concept that bicycle iinfrastructure does not stop at the door. We find a number of motivations and challenges shared across a variety of settings, and the insights derived from the study can be applied to broader situations.
Operational needs and a desire for "green" image-building and marketing are important contributors. Space costs, especially the cost of interior space, posed challenges. Solutions at some sites suggest strategies that could be applied in other settings.
The results also indicate that many decisions on specific BOD components were made on an ad hoc basis, indicating a potential need for an authoritative source of information and guidelines about BOD because much of the information is scattered across different agencies and sources.
Research by Phyllis Orrick, Communications Director, SafeTREC; Karen Trapenberg Frick, Assistant Director, University of California Transportation Center; and David Ragland, Director, SafeTREC.